World Thalassaemia Day 2021: What is thalassaemia? | Causes and Types Date, Theme, History and Significance


Thalassemia is a disease that usually occurs in a child from birth. It is a hereditary disease, which comes from the parents to the child through genes. Thalassemia is of two types. One is minor thalassemia and the other is major thalassemia. In children with minor thalassemia, the blood never reaches the level of normal, it is always low, but they lead a healthy life. At the same time, the difficulty is for children with major major thalassemia. They need blood transfusions approximately every 21 days or every month.

What is Thalassemia?

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Because Thalassemia is a kind of blood disorder. So first of all, consider blood. We all know that blood is a thin fluid, which runs in our veins. It is a thick, viscous and red colored liquid. Blood is considered a living tissue. During a video from Dr. Punit Khanna, Head of the Respiratory Department at Manipal Hospital, Dwarka, during a video, we were told that human blood consists of two things. One blood cells and the other plasma. There are three types of blood cells, first red blood cell, second white blood cell, third platelets. Plasma is the liquid part of the blood. In this, blood cells swim and reach the body parts. Not only this, plasma also transmits nutrients absorbed from the intestines to different parts of the body. That is, plasma serves to deliver its food to every part of the body, that is, plasma is the acceptable delivery agent of the world inside you.

Well, it has become a matter of your GK Now return to the Thalassemia by withdrawing from the plasma. Blood’s most diligent employee
It contains red blood cells i.e. red blood cells. They carry oxygen to every part of the body. This red blood cells bone marrow continues to make. They have an age, which is considered from a few days to 120 days. After this, these sales are broken. The process of breaking of red blood cells continues in the body in a fixed proportion. Your body maintains this ratio, so that there is no lack of blood in the body. But when these red blood cells are not formed properly or their age is very less than normal i.e. they break in a very short time, then it creates a condition of thalassemia.

How does Thalassemia occur?

The child will have minor thalassemia or major thalassemia depending entirely on his or her parent chromosome. If the chromosomes present in the body of one of the mother or father are bad, then there is an increased possibility of minor thalassemia in the child. At the same time, chromosomes of both mother and father are spoiled, then it causes a condition of major thalassemia. In this case, blood formation in the child can stop after three to 6 months of birth.

Now let’s understand what happens inside the body in Thalassemia.

Red blood cells in the body of Thalassemia patient cannot be formed at normal speed or the red cells which are formed or present in the body also break very quickly i.e. they are short lived. In such a situation, due to lack of red blood cells according to the needs of the body, oxygen does not reach the parts of the body in sufficient quantity and many other kinds of problems can occur.

Blood has to be offered again and again

It is sad that children who have Thalassemia disease do not see much age. Generally those who live long are also not as healthy or fit. Red blood cells in the body are about 120 days. But in Thalassemia patients, it lasts for about 20 days. In such a situation, it is necessary that these people be given blood after every 21 days.

Why and who causes Thalassemia?

Actually Thalassemia is a hereditary disease. It comes from parents to children. Many such investigations also exist. From which it can be ascertained how much it is likely to happen in a child growing in the womb. If either mother or father has Thalassemia, then the child can suffer from this disease from the womb itself. On the other hand, if both parents are suffering from minor thalassemia, then the chances of major thalassemia in the child increases significantly.

Because it is a hereditary disease, how to avoid it

To avoid this, it is important that if any one of the mother or father has major thalassemia, then they should plan the child under medical supervision.
Before marriage, the boy and girl should get their blood tests done to ensure that both of them do not suffer from minor thalassemia.
If any one of the mother or father has major thalassemia, then the fetus can be tested within four months of conception.

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