Today History (Aaj Ka Itihas) 1st August; Oxygen Discovered In 1774 By English Chemist Joseph Priestley | Oxygen was discovered 247 years ago, the scientist who discovered it named it Dephlogisticated Air

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  • Today History (Aaj Ka Itihas) 1st August; Oxygen Discovered In 1774 By English Chemist Joseph Priestley

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On this day in 1774, the English scientist Joseph Presley discovered dephlogisticated air by burning mercuric oxide. This gas later came to be known as Pranavayu Oxygen. Before this, the whole world was engaged in finding out the answer to a question. The question was – how do things burn?

Different people were trying to find out by burning different substances in the air that there must be something in the air due to which the fire burns. Around the 18th century, the efforts of scientists to find an answer to this question began to increase.

In 1772, Swedish scientist Carl Wilhelm Scheel was conducting an experiment. He heated a mixture of manganese oxide, potassium nitrate and several elements. On heating them, a gas came out. Sheel noticed that things burn faster in this gas. Along with this, animals are also able to survive in this gas for a long time. Shil had discovered oxygen, but he named it ‘fire air’.

Joseph's instrument designed for experiments on gases looked something like this.

Joseph’s instrument designed for experiments on gases looked something like this.

Two years later, in 1774, Joseph Presley of England also started doing similar experiments. Presley believed that the whole air does not help in burning the fire, only a part of the air helps in burning the fire. To prove his theory, Presley did an experiment on 1 August 1774. He heated red mercuric oxide in a closed vessel. The air that came out after heating was collected in another vessel.

When he placed a burning thing in this air, it started burning more rapidly. Rats also lived longer in this air than in ordinary air. Similarly, on this day in 1774, the life gas oxygen was discovered. However, Presley named oxygen as dephlogisticated air. They believed that because this air does not contain phlogiston, it helps more in burning.

Oxygen had not yet received the name oxygen. In 1777, another scientist Antoine Levizer also studied oxygen. He named oxygen as oxygen and for the first time explained that oxygen is a chemical element. Along with this, the role of oxygen in the burning of things was also told to the world in detail.

Now the question arises that who discovered oxygen then? Shil had discovered oxygen in 1772, but he did not publish his study anywhere. In contrast, in 1774, Presley had also discovered oxygen and published his study. For this reason, Presley is considered the discoverer of oxygen.

1920: Mahatma Gandhi started the non-cooperation movement

Gandhiji started the non-cooperation movement on this day in 1920. During the agitation, students stopped attending schools and colleges, lawyers refused to go to court and workers went on strike. Holi of foreign clothes started burning all over the country. This greatly reduced the import of foreign cloth.

People collecting clothes to burn Holi of foreign clothes during the movement.

People collecting clothes to burn Holi of foreign clothes during the movement.

As the movement spread, people started wearing only Indian clothes. Due to this the economic loss of the British started increasing and the production of Indian textile mills increased. However, the increasing tyranny of the British, the Rowlatt Act and the First World War were important reasons for the start of the non-cooperation movement.

The biggest feature of this movement was its non-violence, but on 5 February 1922, agitating farmers set a police station on fire in Chauri Chaura, UP. 22 policemen were killed in this incident. Hurt by this incident, Gandhiji withdrew the non-cooperation movement.

1953: All airlines in the country were nationalized

By 1953, 8 private airline companies were providing air travel in India, but due to the Second World War, the aviation sector was badly affected worldwide. To deal with this slowdown, the Planning Commission suggested that all airline companies should be nationalised. After this the government introduced the Air Corporations Act in Parliament.

JRD Tata started Tata Airlines in the country in 1932.  Tata Airlines later became Air India.

JRD Tata started Tata Airlines in the country in 1932. Tata Airlines later became Air India.

In March 1953, Parliament passed the Air Corporations Act. The President signed this act on 28 May 1953 and this act came into force on this day in 1953. With this, Indian Airlines and Air India were formed by merging 8 airline companies operating in the country. Air India was given the responsibility of handling international and Indian Airlines to handle domestic flights.

Due to which other important events the day of August 1 is remembered…

1994: Pop star Michael Jackson announces marriage to Lisa Marie Presley.

1971: The Beatles’ George Harrison and Pandit Ravi Shankar organized a charity concert for the newly formed Bangladesh at Madison Square in New York. It is counted among the most successful charity concerts.

1960: The capital of Pakistan was changed from Karachi to Islamabad.

1957: Establishment of National Book Trust.

1944: Anne Frank made the last entry in her diary. The diary of Anne Frank is considered a written document of the brutality of the German regime.

1936: Adolf Hitler started the Olympic Games in Berlin. Hitler had spent money like water on these games to show his power to the world.

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